Carbon Steel Grades

Carbon steel grades are classified and evaluated by their material, mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical properties for the production of mechanical parts.

Carbon Steel GradesCarbon steels, like any other metals and steels, also have varying grades, each suited for certain treated conditions, environments, and temperatures. Almost all carbon steel grades are evaluated and specified to determine their specific contained mechanical and chemical properties that may have different effects and roles in varying environments. The results in finishes may also vary in the grades.

Carbon steel grades are capable to be heat treated in these following possible conditions:

  • Spheroidizing
  • Full annealing
  • Process annealing
  • Isothermal annealing
  • Normalizing
  • Quenching
  • Martempering (Marquenching)
  • Quenching and tempering
  • Austempering

The identification and classification of carbon steel grades matter in steel standards to guide metallurgical refineries and laboratories, product manufacturers, and even forging industries, and other variants in the proper application and processing procedures for ensuring quality towards best and safe use.

1018 mild (low carbon) steel, strong and ductile, has good weldability properties crimping, bending, swaging, worms, pins, gears, dowels, tool holders, machine parts, pinions, ratchets, etc.
1020 suitable for surface hardening, can be case machined, hardened, and welded hydraulic shafts, motor shafts, pump shafts, machinery parts
1030 high carbon steel, has moderate hardness and strength, machineable, ductile machinery parts, used in the tempered and quenched condition for strength
1035 medium-carbon engineering steel, suitable for induction hardening and flame used for forged parts, links, gears, couplings, forged shafts and axles
1040 has good strength, wear resistance, and toughness, machineable forged couplings and crankshafts
1045 medium carbon steel, can be forged satisfactorily, most common shafting steel induction hardening applications, medium strength parts, shafts for pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders
1050 plain carbon steel, readily welded and machined forged shafts and gears
1060 standard grade carbon steel used for forged applications
1065 high-carbon steel, has high tensile strength, heat treatable blades and cutlery
1144 stressproof-equivalent steel, a higher-strength alloy than A36 and 1018, has improved ductility used for parts requiring mechanical properties obtained by heat treating
11L14 free machining steel, has enhanced machinability, stronger than 1018 used for forged applications
12L14 free machining steel, has enhanced machinability, stronger than 1018 screw machines, couplings, inserts, bushings, and hydraulic hose fittings